Graphite is an allotrope of carbon.It is a gray-black,opaque solid.It has stable chemical properties,is corrosion-resistant,and does not easily react with chemicals such as acids and alkalis.It burns in oxygen to generate carbon dioxide,which can be oxidized by strong oxidants such as concentrated nitric acid and potassium permanganate.It can be used as an antiwear agent and lubricant.High-purity graphite is used as a neutron moderator in atomic reactors.It can also be used to make crucibles,electrodes,brushes,dry batteries,graphite fibers,heat exchangers,coolers,electric arc furnaces,Arc lights,pencil refills,etc.
Applications of graphite
1.Used as refractory material:Graphite and its products have the properties of high temperature resistance and high strength.It is mainly used in the metallurgical industry to make graphite crucibles.In steelmaking, graphite is often used as a protective agent for steel ingots and as an inner lining of metallurgical furnaces.
2.As a conductive material: used in the electrical industry to manufacture electrodes,brushes,carbon rods,carbon tubes,positive electrodes of mercury positive current devices,graphite washers,telephone parts,coatings for television picture tubes,etc.
3.As wear-resistant lubricating material:Graphite is often used as a lubricant in the machinery industry.Lubricating oil often cannot be used under high-speed,high-temperature,and high-pressure conditions,while graphite wear-resistant materials can work at high sliding speeds at a temperature of (1) 200~2000 ℃ without lubricating oil.Many equipment that transports corrosive media widely use graphite materials to make piston cups,seals and bearings.They do not need to add lubricating oil during operation.Graphite emulsion is also a good lubricant for many metal processing (wire drawing,pipe drawing).
4.Graphite has good chemical stability.Specially processed graphite has the characteristics of corrosion resistance,good thermal conductivity,and low permeability.It is widely used in the production of heat exchangers,reaction tanks,condensers,combustion towers,absorption towers,coolers,heaters,and filters.
,Pump equipment.It is widely used in petrochemical industry,hydrometallurgy, acid-base production,synthetic fiber,papermaking and other industrial sectors,which can save a lot of metal materials.
5.Used for casting,sand-finding,pressing molds and high temperature metallurgical materials:Because graphite has a small thermal expansion coefficient and can withstand rapid changes in cold and heat,it can be used as a mold for glassware.After using graphite, ferrous metals can be used to obtain castings with accurate size and smooth surface.High,can be used without processing or a little processing,thus saving a lot of metal. Production of cemented carbide and other powder metallurgy processes usually use graphite materials to make porcelain boats for pressing and sintering.Single crystal silicon crystal growth crucibles,regional refining vessels,support fixtures,induction heaters,etc.are all made of high-purity graphite.In addition,graphite can also be used for vacuum smelting graphite insulation boards and bases,high-temperature resistance furnace tubes,rods,plates,grid sheds and other components.
6.Used in the atomic energy industry and national defense industry:Graphite has a good neutron moderator used in atomic reactors.Uranium-graphite reactors are currently the most widely used atomic reactors.The deceleration material in the nuclear reactor used as power should have a high melting point,stability,and corrosion resistance.Graphite can fully meet the above requirements.The purity of graphite used in atomic reactors is very high,and the impurity content should not exceed dozens of PPM.Especially the boron content should be less than 0.5PPM.In the defense industry,graphite is also used to make solid fuel rocket nozzles,missile nose cones,parts of aerospace equipment,heat insulation materials and radiation protection materials.
7.Graphite can also prevent boiler fouling.Tests by relevant units have shown that adding a certain amount of graphite powder (approximately 4 to 5 grams per ton of water) can prevent boiler surface fouling.In addition, graphite coating on metal chimneys, roofs, bridges,and pipes can prevent corrosion and rust.
8.Graphite can be used as pencil lead,pigment and polishing agent.After graphite is specially processed,various special materials can be made for use in relevant industrial sectors.
9.Electrode,why can graphite replace copper as electrode?
In the 1960s,copper was widely used as an electrode material,with a utilization rate of about 90%,while graphite was only about 10%.In the 21st century,more and more users began to choose graphite as an electrode material.In Europe,more than 90% The above electrode material is graphite.Copper,the once dominant electrode material,has almost lost its advantages compared with graphite electrodes.What caused this dramatic change?Of course there are many advantages of graphite electrodes.
(1) Faster processing speed:Under normal circumstances,the machining speed of graphite can be 2 to 5 times faster than that of copper;and the speed of electrical discharge machining is 2 to 3 times faster than that of copper;
The material is not easy to deform:it has obvious advantages in the processing of thin rib electrodes;the softening point of copper is about 1000 degrees,which is easy to deform due to heat;the sublimation temperature of graphite is 3650 degrees;the thermal expansion coefficient is only 1/30 of copper.
(2) Lighter weight:The density of graphite is only 1/5 of that of copper.When large electrodes are used for electrical discharge machining,it can effectively reduce the burden of machine tools (EDM);it is more suitable for applications on large molds.
(3) Discharge consumption is smaller;because spark oil also contains C atoms,during electric discharge machining,the high temperature causes the C atoms in spark oil to be decomposed,which in turn forms a protective film on the surface of the graphite electrode,which compensates for the graphite electrode loss.
(4) There is no burr;the copper electrode needs to be manually trimmed to remove the burr after the processing is completed,and there is no burr after the graphite processing,which saves a lot of cost and makes it easier to realize automated production;
(5) Graphite is easier to grind and polish;since the cutting resistance of graphite is only 1/5 of copper,it is easier to manually grind and polish;
(6) The material cost is lower and the price is more stable;due to the increase in copper prices in recent years,the price of isotropic graphite is now lower than that of copper.Under the same volume,the price of Toyo Tanso's universal graphite products is 30% lower than that of copper.%～60%, and the price is more stable,short-term price fluctuations are very small.
It is this unparalleled advantage that graphite has gradually replaced copper as the material of choice for EDM electrodes
New uses of graphite:
With the continuous development of science and technology,people have also developed many new uses for graphite.
Flexible graphite products.Flexible graphite,also called expanded graphite,is a new graphite product developed in the years.
The United States successfully researched flexible graphite sealing materials and solved the problem of leakage of atomic energy valves.Then Germany,Japan and France also began to develop and produce.in addition to the characteristics of natural graphite,this product also has special flexibility and elasticity.
Therefore,it is an ideal sealing material.it is widely used in petrochemical, atomic energy and other industrial fields.The international market demand is increasing year by year.
In addition,graphite is also a polishing agent and anti-rust agent for glass and papermaking in light industry.It is an indispensable raw material for the manufacture of pencils,ink,black paint,ink,synthetic diamonds and diamonds.It is a good energy-saving and environmentally friendly material,and the United States has used it as a car battery.With the development of modern science and technology and industry,the application field of graphite is still expanding.It has become an important raw material for new composite materials in the high-tech field,and plays an important role in the national economy.
As a global graphite supplier,Tanki New Materials Co.Ltd has rich experiences in the properties,applications,and cost-effective manufacturing of advanced and engineered materials.The company has successfully developed a series of powder materials (including oxides,carbides,nitrides,single metal,etc.),high-purity targets,functional ceramics,and structural devices,OEM service is available.
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Tanki New Materials Co.Ltd has rich experiences in the properties, applications, and cost-effective manufacturing of advanced and engineered materials. The company has successfully developed a series of powder materials (including oxides, carbides, nitrides, single metal, etc.), high-purity targets, functional ceramics, and structural devices. OEM service is available.
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